Archaeology This is an informative and engaging site from the BBC. There are special sections on excavating human remains and the story of carbon dating as well as archaeology news stories from the BBC.
References and Further Reading 1. Introduction African philosophy as a systematic study has a very short history. This history is also a very dense one, since actors sought to do in a few decades what would have been better done in many centuries.
As a result, they also did in later years what ought to have been done earlier and vice versa, thus making the early and the middle epochs overlap considerably.
The reason for this overtime endeavor is not far-fetched. Soon after colonialism, actors realized that Africa had been sucked into the global matrix unprepared.
During colonial times, the identity of the African was European, his thought system, standard and even his perception of reality were structured by the colonial shadow which stood towering behind him. It was easy for the African to position himself within these Western cultural appurtenances even though they had no real-time connection with his being.
The vanity of this presupposition and the emptiness of colonial assurances manifested soon after the towering colonial shadow vanished. Now, in the global matrix, it became shameful for the African to continue to identify himself within the European colonialist milieu.
For one, he had just rejected colonialism and for another, the deposed European colonialist made it clear that the identity of the African was no longer covered and insured by the European medium. So, actors realized suddenly that they had been disillusioned and had suffered severe self-deceit under colonial temper.
It was the urgent, sudden need to contradict these European positions that led some post-colonial Africans in search of African identity. So, to discover or rediscover African identity in order to initiate a non-colonial or original history for Africa in the global matrix and start a course of viable economic, political and social progress that is entirely African became one of the focal points of African philosophy.
However, it was George James, another concerned European who attempted a much more ambitious project in his work, Stolen Legacy. In this work, there were strong suggestions not only that Africa has philosophy but that the so-called Western philosophy, the very bastion of European identity, was stolen from Africa.
This claim was intended to make the proud European colonialists feel indebted to the humiliated Africans, but it was unsuccessful. That Greek philosophy had roots in Egypt does not imply, as some Europeans claim, that Egyptians were dark nor that dark complexioned Africans had philosophy.
After these two Europeans, Africans began to attain maturation. It can be stated that much of these endeavors fall under the early period.
For its concerns, the middle period of African philosophy is characterized by the great debate.
Those who seek to clarify and justify the position held in the early epoch and those who seek to criticize and deny the viability of such position entangled themselves in a great debate. Some of the actors on this front include, C. The preceding epoch eventually gave way to the later period which has as its focus the construction of an African episteme.
The former seek to build an African episteme untainted by ethnophilosophy; whereas, the latter seek to do the same by a delicate fusion of relevant ideals of the two camps.
In the end, Critical Reconstructionism ran into a brick wall when it became clear that whatever it produced cannot truly be called African philosophy if it is all Western without African marks.
The mere claim that it would be African philosophy simply because it was produced by Africans Hountondji and Oruka would collapse like a house of cards under any argument.The appearance of his De la tradition orale in and its English version Oral Tradition in represented both a “trial balloon” and a clarion call for those who believed in the potential of oral tradition as a means of reconstructing precolonial African history.
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Construction, layout, the retractable top, stairs, elevators, and restaurants! The early Coliseum was regularly flooded so that sea battles could take place. Oral History What is Oral History? Historians have traditionally relied on documents of various kinds while conducting their research.
But documents are often insufficient for fully reconstructing the past, and this is as true of legal history as of any other field of history. History of African Philosophy. This article traces the history of systematic African philosophy from the early s to date.
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