The Middle Managers of Murder Introduction Bureaucracy is not unique to Germany, however its application by the National Socialists as a tool of totalitarian oppression is peerless. Comparisons are often made between Hitler's Germany and Stalin's Soviet Union, but Stalin purged the ranks of the military as well as civil bureaucracies, whereas Hitler preferred to work with the established bureaucracy in deference to expediency. The rapid rearmament of Germany and mobilization for war required that the Nazi regime make use of the existing administrative machinery [ 1 ].
Overview[ edit ] Between and Malthus published six editions of his famous treatise, updating each edition to incorporate new material, to address criticism, and to convey changes in his own perspectives on the subject. He wrote the original text in reaction to the optimism of his father and his father's associates notably Rousseau regarding the future improvement of society.
Malthus also constructed his case as a specific response to writings of William Godwin — and of the Marquis de Condorcet — Part of Thomas Malthus 's table of population growth in Englandfrom his An Essay on the Principle of Population, 6th edition, Malthus regarded ideals of future improvement in the lot of humanity with scepticism, considering that throughout history a segment of every human population seemed relegated to poverty.
He explained this phenomenon by arguing that population growth generally expanded in times and in regions of plenty until the size of the population relative to the primary resources caused distress: This constant effort as constantly tends to subject the lower classes of the society to distress and to prevent any great permanent amelioration of their condition".
An Essay on the Principle of Population. We will suppose the means of subsistence in any country just equal to the easy support of its inhabitants.
The constant effort towards population The food therefore which before supported seven millions must now be divided among seven millions and a half or eight millions.
The poor consequently must live much worse, and many of them be reduced to severe distress. The number of labourers also being above the proportion of the work in the market, the price of labour must tend toward a decrease, while the price of provisions would at the same time tend to rise.
The labourer therefore must work harder to earn the same as he did before. During this season of distress, the discouragements to marriage, and the difficulty of rearing a family are so great that population is at a stand. In the mean time the cheapness of labour, the plenty of labourers, and the necessity of an increased industry amongst them, encourage cultivators to employ more labour upon their land, to turn up fresh soil, and to manure and improve more completely what is already in tillage, till ultimately the means of subsistence become in the same proportion to the population as at the period from which we set out.
The situation of the labourer being then again tolerably comfortable, the restraints to population are in some degree loosened, and the same retrograde and progressive movements with respect to happiness are repeated.
Malthus also saw that societies through history had experienced at one time or another epidemics, famines, or wars: The power of population is so superior to the power of the earth to produce subsistence for man, that premature death must in some shape or other visit the human race.
The vices of mankind are active and able ministers of depopulation. They are the precursors in the great army of destruction, and often finish the dreadful work themselves. But should they fail in this war of extermination, sickly seasons, epidemics, pestilence, and plague advance in terrific array, and sweep off their thousands and tens of thousands.
Should success be still incomplete, gigantic inevitable famine stalks in the rear, and with one mighty blow levels the population with the food of the world.
Chapter VII, p 44  The rapid increase in the global population of the past century exemplifies Malthus's predicted population patterns; it also appears to describe socio-demographic dynamics of complex pre-industrial societies.
These findings are the basis for neo-Malthusian modern mathematical models of long-term historical dynamics. If the subsistence for man that the earth affords was to be increased every twenty-five years by a quantity equal to what the whole world at present produces, this would allow the power of production in the earth to be absolutely unlimited, and its ratio of increase much greater than we can conceive that any possible exertions of mankind could make it Chapter 2, p 8  To date, world population has remained below his predicted line.
However, the current rate of increase since is over two billion per 25 years, more than twice the Malthus predicted maximum rate. At the same time, world hunger has been in decline. The highest UN projection has population continuing at this rate and surpassing the Malthus predicted line.
This high projection supposes today's growth rate is sustainable to the year and beyond. The positive checks include hunger, disease and war; the preventive checks, birth control, postponement of marriage, and celibacy.
For example, he satirically criticized the notion that agricultural improvements could expand without limit: It is probable that the gardeners who contend for flower prizes have often applied stronger dressing without success.
At the same time, it would be highly presumptuous in any man to say, that he had seen the finest carnation or anemone that could ever be made to grow. He might however assert without the smallest chance of being contradicted by a future fact, that no carnation or anemone could ever by cultivation be increased to the size of a large cabbage; and yet there are assignable quantities much greater than a cabbage.
No man can say that he has seen the largest ear of wheat, or the largest oak that could ever grow; but he might easily, and with perfect certainty, name a point of magnitude, at which they would not arrive.
In all these cases therefore, a careful distinction should be made, between an unlimited progress, and a progress where the limit is merely undefined. Whether intellect could be communicated may be a matter of doubt; but size, strength, beauty, complexion, and perhaps longevity are in a degree transmissible As the human race, however, could not be improved in this way without condemning all the bad specimens to celibacy, it is not probable that an attention to breed should ever become general".
Chapter IX, p 72  In the second and subsequent editions Malthus put more emphasis on moral restraint. By that he meant the postponement of marriage until people could support a family, coupled with strict celibacy sexual abstinence until that time.
He proposed the gradual abolition of poor laws by gradually reducing the number of persons qualifying for relief.The National commission on urbanization submitted its report in and 65th constitutional amendment was introduced in Lok Sabha in , this was first attempt to give urban local bodies a constitutional status with three tier federal structure.
Sharon Johnston and Mark Lee debut Menil Drawing Institute, dedicated to modern and contemporary drawing, on November 3. On November 3, the Menil Collection .
The Supreme Court case Brown v.
Board of Education led to the integration of public schools in America. In this lesson, you'll learn about the historical background to the case and why it was. ESSAY SCHOLARSHIP CONTEST WINNERS ANNOUNCED.
Each year, NPG offers a variety of Scholarship Contests for students across the country.
Contestants are invited to answer a population-related challenge, with their own experience and insight guiding their ideas for a solution. Author’s note: This essay originally appeared in The Baffler web-zine July The following was my original submission draft.
It may contain some typos. The Future of the City by James Howard Kunstler One spring day not so long ago, I had a low-grade epiphany walking across New York’s Central Park from my hotel on the more». My current work, The Pink and Blue Projects are the topic of my thesis. This project explores the trends in cultural preferences and the differences in the tastes of children (and their parents) from diverse cultures, ethnic groups as well as gender socialization and identity.